The brain and spinal cord make up the majority of the central nervous system (CNS), which is a component of the nervous system. The brain controls and regulates the activity of all sections of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic animals—all multicellular organisms aside from sponges and diploblasts—and integrates the information that is received, giving the CNS its name. It is a structure made of nerve tissue that runs the length of the body, from rostral (the nose end) to caudal (the tail end). It may have a brain at the rostral end that is larger. True brains are only found in arthropods, cephalopods, and vertebrates (precursor structures exist in onychophorans, gastropods and lancelets).
CNS Images | Central Nervous System Images | The Vertebrate Central Nervous System
The vertebrate central nervous system, which is fundamentally different from all other creatures, will be explained here more in detail.
The meninges surround the spinal cord and brain in vertebrates. The brain is shielded from the majority of neurotoxins frequently found in food by the meninges, which act as a barrier to compounds dissolved in blood. The body fluid found outside the cells of all bilateral animals is replaced by cerebral spinal fluid, which is housed inside the meninges and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
CNS Images | Central Nervous System Images | The Brain Housed Within the Skull
In vertebrates, the brain is housed in the cranial cavity within the skull, whereas the CNS is enclosed within the dorsal body cavity. The spinal canal within the vertebrae is where the spinal cord is located. A significant number of supportive non-nervous cells known as neuroglia or glia—from the Greek for "glue"—fill the intraneuronal space within the CNS.
The retina, the optic nerve (cranial nerve VII), the olfactory nerves, and the olfactory epithelium are all parts of the CNS in vertebrates. They have no intermediary ganglia since they are CNS components that link directly to brain neurons. The meninges barrier prevents therapeutic chemicals from passing through, and the olfactory epithelium is the sole central nerve tissue outside of the meninges in direct touch with the environment.
AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY J. P. FANNING
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